This article is presented as information about real vampires for educational
purposes. The information presented in this is article should
not used as a checklist to determine if someone is a real vampire or not.
Having any of the qualities described within this article does not make someone
a real vampire. All other explanations (i.e., medical, psychological, environmental,
etc.) should be explored before assuming that one is a real vampire. Also,
the information presented in this article is general in nature, and does not
go into any details. Further research into any specific topics is encouraged
by the author.
Q: What is a real vampire? What are the different type of vampires
and their differences?
This article originally started out as a response to someone asking those very
questions in a discussion group that I am a member of. These questions are frequently
asked in many different discussion groups by many different people, usually
by those that are new to the vampire community. Depending on where one asks
these questions or to whom one asks these questions, one will get many different
answers. The answers I will give are my own understanding and my own opinion
based on my own personal research.
There are often discussions about mythical/fictional vampires that most are
already familiar with from myths, books, movies, television and role playing
games. There are also sometimes discussions about energy/astral beings (which
do not have corporeal forms) and creatures (such as demons) with vampiric qualities,
however such beings and creatures are not considered to be true vampires. In
actuality, there is only one type of vampire: real vampires. Real vampires are
individuals (mortal living humans) that have a genuine need for life force energies
from outside sources because their bodies either consume energy too quickly
or do not produce sufficient life force energy to sustain them. Real vampires
are then further classified by their feeding methods, but some will say that
the different feeding methods are different types of real vampires.
"TYPES" OF VAMPIRES
Some will say that there are two main different methods of feeding on life
force energy; sanguine and psi; and that all other forms of feeding are subcategories
or specializations of psi feeding. Others will say that each feeding method
is a different form of feeding, hence different "types" of vampires.
Sanguine vampires (or sanguinarians) are vampires who feed
by drinking blood. However, it is not the blood itself that they are feeding
on. It is the life force energy contained within the blood. Blood drinking
is arguably the most potent form of feeding on life force energy, and many
sanguinarians can thrive for many weeks from a single feeding. (A single feeding
is often about an ounce or two of blood taken from a willing donor.) Sanguinarians
often describe blood drinking as a very fulfilling, very powerful and somewhat
intoxicating experience. It also tends to be a rather intimate form of feeding.
Psi (or psy) vampires are vampires that feed psychically
on life force energies. Psi feeding (in any form) can be done from an individual
(most often a willing donor) or from the ambient energies of a group or crowd.
However, psi feeding can also be done from a person without the person realizing
that they are being fed from, although many may consider it to be unethical
to do so. Generally though, the person being fed from is not harmed by the
feeding in any way. It should be noted that there is no difference between
a psi vampire and a psy vampire, other than the spelling. As for the difference
in spellings, the only conclusion I have been able to reach is that psi is
an abbreviation of psionic, while psy is an abbreviation of psychic. However
both terms, psionic and psychic, refer to psychic phenomena. Psi vampires
used to be referred to as psychic vampires, but the field of behavioral psychology
has co-opted the term psychic vampire to describe a person who has a psychological
need for attention and will do whatever they can to get that attention from
anyone and everyone, leaving those that interact with them feeling drained.
Psi vampires avoid using the term psychic vampire to differentiate themselves
from the behavioral psychology psychic vampires. Some will also refer to psi
vampires as pranic vampires, derived from the term prana, a
sanskrit term literally translated as life force energy.
Empathic vampires are vampires who feed on emotional life force energies
from the emotions of people. There are those that will say that vampires that
feed on negative emotional energies (anger, fear, etc.) are negative/chaotic
vampires and are a subcategory/specialization of empathic vampires. Others
will say that negative/chaos vampires are separate from empathic vampires.
The reason is that empathic vampires will usually feed on whatever emotions
a person is feeling without necessarily causing those emotions. However, often
negative/chaos vampires will cause situations where negative emotions and
chaotic energies will be stimulated and then feed off of those energies.
Sexual vampires are vampires who feed on the life force energies generated
from having sex, especially the excess energies generated at the moment of
orgasm. They can do so psychically and/or from bodily fluids. Female sexual
vampires are sometimes referred to as succubi (singularly, succubus), and
male sexual vampires are sometime referred to as incubi (singularly, incubus).
Some will also refer to sexual vampires as tantric vampires. Others
will refer to sexual vampires as pranic vampires. There is sometimes debate
within the vampire community if referring to sexual vampires as pranic vampires
is correct or not as there are some within the vampire community that refer
to psi vampires as pranic vampires, which could lead to some confusion when
talking about pranic vampires. Those that support referring to sexual vampires
as pranic vampires argue that pranic energies and prana are two different
things, and that pranic energies are energies related to sex while prana is
just life force energies. There are those that think the use of the labels
tantric and pranic in reference to sexual vampires is an attempt by some within
the vampire community at political correctness who feel that the term sexual
vampire is derogatory and/or offensive or simply think that tantric and pranic
"sound" better than sexual. However, it is also possible that those
who use tantric or pranic when talking about sexual vampires are doing so
to differentiate them from any link to behavioral psychology which seems to
also be co-opting the term sexual vampire to describe a person who has a psychological
need for attention (much like a psychic vampire) through sex.
Soul vampires are vampires that are able to feed directly off the energy
of a person's soul. As a result of soul feeding, soul vampires will sometimes
gain some or all of the abilities of the person they are feeding from. Soul
vampires will also sometimes receive memories, thoughts and desires of the
person that they are feeding from. Soul feeding is a very intimate form of
feeding, even more so than sexual and sanguine feeding. Soul vampires are
also sometimes referred to as soul devourers.
Elemental vampires are vampires that are able to feed on the life force
energies of the elements; earth, wind, fire, and water. Some will say that
elemental vampires are elementalists who are able to manipulate elemental
energies and then convert those energies into consumable life force energies.
Others will say that elemental vampires feed directly from elemental life
force energies. There are also those that will say that vampires who feed
on life force energies from plants and animals are also elemental vampires.
However, there are those that distinguish such vampires as nature vampires.
Another method of feeding often considered a subcategory or specialization
of elemental feeding is electrical feeding; the indirect feeding on energies
in electrical fields and lightning. Others will distinguish such vampires
as electrical vampires.
Astral vampires are vampires that are able to travel through the astral
plane and feed off of the life force energies of other entities within the
astral plane, and/or they are able to materialize in astral form and feed
off the life force energies of people that are usually asleep.
Dreamscape vampires are essentially astral vampires that are able to
enter into a person's dream, and feed from the life force energies within
the dream. They can be invisible observers in the dream, or they can manifest
themselves within the dream. Some are able to influence the course of the
Magickal vampires are vampires that are able to feed on and manipulate
Vampires who only use one method of feeding are referred to by the way that
they feed (i.e., sanguinarian, elemental vampire, sexual vampire, etc.). Vampires
who are able to feed using some but not all psychic methods but are not able
to feed sanguine are referred to as adaptive psi vampires. Vampires who
are able to feed using all psychic methods but are not able to feed sanguine
are referred to as eclectic psi vampires. Sanguine vampires that are
also able to feed using some but not all psychic methods are referred to as
adaptive vampires. Sanguine vampires who are also able to feed using
all psychic methods are referred to as eclectic vampires.
There are several groups of people that are often mistaken for being real vampires
that are often associated with the vampire community.
One such group of people are referred to as leeches or energy leeches
by some within the vampire community. Such individuals are people who have
developed the ability to manipulate and feed on life force energies in many
of the ways vampires feed, however such individuals usually do not have a
genuine need for the life force energies that they feed on. They manipulate
and feed on life force energies for the feelings it gives them; usually a
sense of euphoria, power and intoxication. Leeches can become addicted to
the life force energies they feed on (much like a drug of some kind), and
feel that they need the life force energies because they will go through withdrawals
when they do not feed for a period of time. They will sometimes call themselves
vampires, and will sometimes try to be involved with the vampire community.
However, their apparent need for life force energies does not make them vampires,
as the withdrawal symptoms will go away with time. For real vampires, physical
effects felt from not feeding get worse with time. It is often very easy for
real vampires to realize when an individual is an energy leech and not a vampire.
There are also vampire lifestylers, which are often involved in vampire
communities and can often be mistaken for being real vampires. Vampire lifestylers
are people that dress and live a life similar to that of mythical/fictional
vampires. They try to emulate the Hollywood and fictional image of a vampire
as much as possible:
Having pale skin from staying out of the sun and/or the use of makeup
Adopting nocturnal lifestyles; wearing fashions seen in movies, television
shows, and described in books (most often gothic, victorian, and/or leather
and usually in dark colors)
Wearing fake fangs
Wearing WildEyes contact lenses to make their eyes look vampiric (most
often, Black-out, Cat Eye, Wildfire, Red Hot and White-out styles)
Adopting the use of "old world" language patterns
Decorating their homes to emulate gothic and/ or victorian styles resembling
the homes/lairs of vampires seen in movies, television shows and described
in books, sometimes including a coffin that they sleep in.
Some will even go to the extent of drinking blood although they have no
need to do so.
In most cases, vampire lifestylers are regular humans that have chosen to
live the lifestyle of a vampire. However, it should be noted that there are
also real vampires who choose to live the lifestyle of a vampire (for example,
Don Henrie from Sci-Fi Channel's Mad Mad House). It is often very easy
for real vampires to tell the real vampire lifestylers apart from the human
Another group of people that are sometimes involved with the vampire community
and mistaken for being real vampires are blood fetishists. Blood fetishists
are regular humans who engage in blood play (cutting, blood letting and blood
drinking) usually, but not always, within a BDSM setting. Although blood fetishists
will often drink blood, they have no need to do so.
Yet another group of people that try to be involved with the vampire community
are perhaps the most despised group of people by the vampire community; role
players. The most predominant ones are the role players that play Vampire:
the Masquerade by White Wolf Publishing. However, role players
can be anyone who chooses to play the part of a vampire in any role playing
game (RPG). What usually happens is that the role players begin to feel that
they are the characters that they are playing. The lines between reality and
role playing become blurred for them, and they begin to think and believe
that they are vampires. Then they try to get involved with the vampire community,
and try to pass themselves off as real vampires. However, they usually immediately
expose themselves as role players by using RPG terminology and ideas (such
as the different types/races of vampire clans (brujah, ventrue, etc.), claiming
to be immortal, being a member of a certain clan/house, etc). Or, they come
to the vampire community thinking that it is all RPG, and then find much to
their disappointment that the vampire community is a very real community with
a low tolerance for role players. However, it should be noted that sometimes
playing role playing game may trigger the awakening of a latent vampire, and
that there are some real vampires that also play role playing games for recreational
Society also tends to misuse the idea of vampires, and will sometimes
refer to people as being vampires or exhibiting vampiric traits and behaviors.
An accountant and/or phlebotomist may be described as a "bloodsucker"
An attractive woman dressed for a night of clubbing may be described as
Aperson in a bad relationship may say that their mate is "draining
the life out of the relationship"
References to feeding such as, "we all feed off of each other"
(Incidentally, try doing a Google search using the exact phrase with the
quotes. The results are rather interesting, none of them having anything
to do with vampirism or vampires.)
The phrase, "they are trying to bleed me dry" or "they are
bleeding me dry" often heard during contract negotiations
"They must be a vampire because they stay up/out late all the time";
"they are like a vampires, they work at night and sleep all day"
However, in most cases, the people referred to in such a manner usually are
not vampires of any kind nor should they be mistaken to be vampires.
As mentioned earlier, the field of behavioral psychology has co-opted the
terms psychic vampire and sexual vampire to describe a people who have a psychological
need for attention and will do whatever they can to get that attention from
anyone and everyone, leaving those that interact with them feeling drained.
In most cases, these people are not real vampires. The drained feeling that
people experience when interacting with these people comes from having to
tolerate an often uncomfortable and unpleasant situation, but not from an
There is also another psychological condition within the field of behavioral
psychology known as clinical vampirism, or more commonly referred to
as Renfield's Syndrome, based upon the fictional character of Renfield
from Bram Stoker's Dracula. Those that suffer from clinical vampirism,
in most cases, are not real vampires either. Renfield's Syndrome is described
as a pathological and delusional disease, fetishistic and compulsive in nature,
where a person (usually a male) experiences a psychological need for blood
with a strong sexual component. Generally, those that suffer from the syndrome
often go through a progression of stages beginning with autovampirism (drinking
one's own blood) and progressing to vampirism (drinking the blood of others).
The compulsion of the vampirism stage may lead a person to committing criminal
acts to obtain human blood, such as stealing blood from hospitals and blood
banks or going to the extreme of killing someone.
Another group of people that are often mistaken for being real vampires are
criminal vampires, sometimes referred to as vampire killers
or psychotic vampires. These are individuals that have committed criminal
acts that are considered vampiric in nature, generally anything having to
do with the drinking of blood or the criminal claiming to be a vampire. Some
of these individuals may be in the final stage of clinical vampirism as described
in the previous paragraph. In most cases though, criminal vampires are individuals
that are obsessed with emulating fictional vampires, either from watching
movies and television shows about vampires, reading (usually fictional) books
about vampires, and/or playing vampire characters in RPGs. However, it should
be noted that it is possible that some criminal vampires may have been real
vampires. It has not been proven either way whether any criminal vampires
were real vampires or not.
SYMPTOMS/CHARACTERISTICS OF VAMPIRISM
Q: What are the symptoms of vampirism?
I personally, and some others, dislike the term symptoms when referring
to vampirism as it makes vampirism sound like some kind of disease or illness,
which it is not. Some also refer to vampirism as a condition or energy
deficiency, but I personally, and some others, frown upon those terms as
well, because it gives vampirism a negative connotation.
No one knows nor has been able to determine what causes vampirism. The leading
theory is that vampirism may be a combination of genetic, physiological and
metaphysical causes. One will often see vampirism referred to as a condition,
and then compared to some other physiological conditions such as diabetes or
high blood pressure.
I personally prefer to refer to symptoms of vampirism as vampiric traits,
characteristics and abilities. However, possessing any or all of these traits,
characteristics and abilities does not make one a vampire as many of these same
traits, characteristics and abilities can be accounted for by other reasons.
All other explanations (i.e., medical, psychological, environmental, etc.) should
be explored before assuming that one has those traits due to vampirism.
The key factor in determining if one is a vampire is going to be if one has
a genuine need for life force energies from outside sources and their traits,
characteristics and abilities are tied to their vampirism. Also, not all vampires
will have all traits, characteristics and abilities. Each individual vampire
is different and may have different traits, characteristics and abilities from
each other. Just as every individual is different, every vampire is different.
Some will have more abilities than others. Some will have more limitations than
- Pale skin
- Sensitivity to sunlight physically (i.e., sunburn easily) and/or visually
- Visual sensitivity to any light source
- Better night vision than day vision
- Eye color changing with mood or for no apparent reason
- Heightened senses
- Unaccounted for strength (i.e., stronger than one should be without working
out) and quick reflexes
- Often feel hungry and/or thirsty despite an adequate food diet
- Extreme cravings for certain types of food or extreme cravings that can
not be satisfied with food
- Often feel run down, fatigued, tired despite an adequate food diet and
- Frequent headaches for no apparent reason
- Do not require very much sleep
- Able to heal quicker than others
- Often get sick with "flu like" symptoms with no medical explanation
when they go without feeding for a period of time
- Strong willed; independent nature; confident
- Intellectual/highly intelligent
- Well learned/educated, although not necessarily school educated
- Predatory nature
- Dark nature
- Prefer nighttime over daytime; i.e., nocturnal nature
- Moodiness/mood swings/quick tempered
- Mental and/or personality disorders (diagnosed by a medical doctor)
Psychic abilities (although not necessarily psychic
feeding methods) and metaphysical characteristics:
- Mind reading
- See and read auras
- Extra sensory perception (ESP)
- Clairaudience, being able to mentally hear things from a distance
- Clairvoyance, being able to mentally see things from a distance
- Clairsentience, having knowledge that one can not explain
- Audiovoyance, being able to see and/or hear spirits and possibly communicate
- Astral travel/astral projection
- Invisibility, although not as in the Invisible Man kind of invisibility;
the kind of invisibility where one can blend into a setting, room and/or
crowd, and not be noticed by anyone looking for them.
- Past life memories, especially vampiric past life memories
- Immortal soul and a belief in reincarnation
- Experience déjà vu quite frequently
- Able to sense other vampires (often referred to as "vamp radar")
- Involved in "alternative" religions (such as pagan, wiccan,
satanic, etc.) or have "alternative" spiritual beliefs
- Most are either born vampires or experience an awakening to their vampiric
nature later in life, usually in their teen years but it can happen later
The above lists are not all inclusive lists, as I may have missed some characteristics
and abilities, but those are the ones that I could think of at this time.
These lists of vampire characteristics and traits should
not be used as a checklist to determine if one is a vampire.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN REAL VAMPIRES AND MYTHICAL/FICTIONAL
Real vampires are not undead creatures. Real vampires are living humans.
Real vampires are not immortal. Real vampires are mortal humans. However,
some vampires may believe they have immortal souls, may believe in reincarnation
and may have past life memories.
Real vampires are not demons. They are humans.
Real vampires are not superior to humans. Real vampires are humans with a
need to obtain life force energies from outside sources. They are perhaps
different from most humans, but not superior.
Religious symbols do not ward off or bother real vampires by simply being
held up at them. Beating or hitting a real vampire with said religious symbol
may be a different story.
Holy water does not affect real vampires other than it gets them wet, and
getting them wet might annoy a real vampire.
Real vampires in general are not necessarily evil, although some may choose
to be. Religious preferences among real vampires will vary by each individual
vampire. Some will choose to follow a certain religion, while others will
not follow any religion. While some real vampires will choose to be satanic,
not at all real vampires are satanic or devil worshippers. Believe it or not,
there are even some real vampires that are Christians.
Silver does not bother most real vampires. Some are allergic to silver. Others
will use silver for its metaphysical properties to control and/or focus shielding
and/or feeding techniques.
Yes, a real vampire can be killed if one drives a stake through its heart
and chop off its head, but so will most regular humans if one does the same
to them. Also, real vampires do not turn to dust or rapidly decompose when
one kills them. By the way, killing a real vampire is murder, and will result
in a person being arrested and put in jail.
Real vampires do not change or morph into any other forms, such as wolves,
bats, mist, etc.
Real vampires do not have superpowers. Some may have heightened senses and
Real vampires do not fly, unless they are in some kind of flying device like
a plane or helicopter.
Real vampires do not burst into flames in sunlight. However, some real vampires
are sensitive to sunlight and will sunburn easily. Other real vampires enjoy
the sun, and can elementally feed from the sun.
Real vampires do not sleep all day and stay up all night. Although many real
vampires have nocturnal natures, most also have daytime lives that they must
deal with as well. However, most will stay up well into the night and sleep
for a couple of hours before resuming their daytime lives.
Real vampires do not have to sleep in coffins, and they do not need to have
their native soil with them when they sleep. However, real vampires may choose
to sleep in a coffin for personal reasons. I understand that they are quite
dark and very quiet, allowing for a very peaceful sleep.
Real vampires do not "turn", "embrace", "sire"
or "change" someone into a vampire. There is no such thing as a
vampirism virus, and one can not become a vampire by being bitten or through
an exchange of blood. Real vampires are born vampires and may be vampires
from birth or they may experience an awakening later in life, usually during
their teen years but it can happen later in life. At best, some real vampires
may be able to trigger the awakening of a latent vampire, which is often misconstrued
as a turning.
Real vampires are not bloodthirsty killers. They do not feed on and kill victims.
Most real vampires feed from willing donors in safe manners, never risking
harm to their donors. Even for real vampires who feed from people that do
not realize they are being fed from, although it is considered unethical by
most, they will not feed in a manner that causes harm to the person being
Real vampires cast reflections. Some even enjoy looking at their reflections.
Some enjoy it too much. Others do not enjoy looking at their reflections.
Just like most people.
Real vampires do not necessarily dress to look like vampires seen in movies,
television, or described in books. Some may do so by choice. Others may choose
to look gothic. Others will dress however they want to and wear regular clothes.
Real vampires do not have fangs, although some may choose to have their teeth
shaped to look like fangs or wear fake fangs. Some people have naturally occurring
fangs, but that does not necessarily make them a vampire.
Real vampires are not able to enthrall a person simply by looking at them.
However, some real vampires are able to effectively seduce or charm people
using various methods (such as NLP and hypnosis).
Real vampires do not live in fancy mansions in households with other vampires,
nor do they live in mausoleums/crypts. However, some real vampires may choose
to live with each other as roommates/housemates. Others will form covens,
courts, houses, orders, and/or organizations to gather and be with other vampires.
Real vampires are not automatically rich, and do not have fancy possessions.
Many real vampires have to work regular jobs for a living.
The lifestyles of real vampires are not romantic and glamorous like those
seen in movies, television or described in books. Many vampires lead regular
lives, have families, have to pay rent/mortgages/bills, and deal with everyday
things like everyone else.
Again, the above list is not an all inclusive list, as I may have missed some
differences, but those are the ones that I could think of at this time.
In this article, I have defined what a real vampire is, explained the different
types of vampires and their feeding methods, described people often mistaken
for real vampires, listed characteristics of real vampires, and the differences
between real vampires and mythical/fictional vampires. However, I want to
make it clear that there is no definitive way or "test" for determining
if one is a real vampire or not. Determining if one is a real vampire is a
personal journey, and should not be taken lightly. One needs to do research
and eliminate any other explanations (i.e., medical reasons for certain characteristics)
before assuming that they are a vampire. A person needs to determine for themselves
if a real vampire is simply what they are or what they desire to be.
If a person desires to be a vampire, then one needs to determine what the
motivation for that desire is as usually that desire will go unfulfilled.
If they are not already a vampire (i.e., a latent vampire), then they will
not be able to become a vampire no matter how much they may want to become
one. However, they can still become involved with the vampire community as
a vampire supporter and/or donor. There are many people involved in the vampire
community who are not vampires, and they are able to contribute to the vampire
As mentioned before, the information presented in this article is general
in nature, and presented for educational purposes. Any areas of specific interest
should be further researched.
This article is written in its entirety by Enygma, and to the best of the
author's knowledge it is an original article. The information presented in
this article comes from personal research and participation in discussion
groups within Yahoo Groups and various message boards. No other articles or
authors (to the best of the author's knowledge) were quoted in the writing
of this article. However, credit is due to the following people and organizations
(and the members thereof) (in alphabetical order) for educating the author
about real vampires and vampirism: Kindred
Nations Yahoo Group, Michelle
Belanger and House
Kheperu Yahoo Group and website,
Ordo Strigoi Vii & Vampyre
Almanac, Sanguinarius: The Vampire
Support Page, (and the resources thereof), Shadowlore
Yahoo Group, SphynxCat's Real
Vampires Support Page website, Vampire Church Yahoo
Group and website, Vampire
Corner Yahoo Group and website (currently not available) and Vyrdolak's
The idea for this article came from a discussion in the Vampire-Discussion
Yahoo Group, a resource of Sanguinarius: The Vampire Support Page.
Description of clinical vampirism taken from, "Vampires, Werewolves,
& Demons. Twentieth Century Reports in the Psychiatric Literature."
Richard Noll. Brunner/Mazel Publishing, Inc. New York, New York. ©1992.
All other information for this article came from discussions in various Yahoo
Groups and from various websites mentioned above, as well as personal experiences
of the author and conversations with other vampires.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Enygma is a solitary eclectic vampire residing in the state of Hawaii on
the island of Oahu. Enygma experienced his awakening during his teen years,
and has been a (awakened) vampire for almost twenty years within this lifetime.
Enygma came to the online vampire community in November of 2003, and has taken
an active role in participating in the online vampire community in a search
for knowledge about vampires and vampirism. Enygma can often be found participating
in discussions in various discussion groups and on message boards, freely
sharing his knowledge, thoughts, and opinions of vampires and vampirism.
Additionally, the author welcomes any inquiries, questions, comments and/or
criticisms from readers about this article or any posts the author has made.
The author also welcomes requests to repost this article to discussion groups,
message boards and websites, subject to the copyright notice below and conditions
that the author may require for reposting this article. The author can be
reached at enygmaone.
The author's only request is that any comments and/or criticisms be constructive.
Messages of an inflammatory or derogatory nature will be deleted without a
Original Version: Saturday, Apr 24, 2004 at 9:56 pm Hawaiian Standard Time
Current Revision: Tuesday, May 25, 2004 at 8:01 pm Hawaiian Standard Time
© 2004-Present by Enygma. All copyrights reserved to original author.
Do not copy, change or alter without written permission from the author. Do
not reprint and/or retransmit unless in entirety with copyright statement
and credit to the original author attached. Any copying, changes, alterations,
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original author attached will be considered a copyright infringement and punishable
This article is presented as part of an ongoing
effort to present other views outside of, as well as within, the online
vampire community. As such, the views and attitudes contained in this
article are entirely those of the author(s), and may not necessarily
be shared by SphynxCatVP. The webmaster is not under obligation to update
or otherwise keep current the contents of this article. Most
importantly, only you can decide for yourself whether this article or
any of the author(s) other views are useful or applicable to you - use
your own reasoning and judgment.